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how does el nino affect upwelling

During an El Niño event, the easterly trade winds converging across the equatorial Pacific weaken. This in turn slows the ocean current that draws surface water away from the western coast of South America and reduces the upwelling of cold, nutrient–rich water from the deeper ocean, flattening out the thermocline.

How does El Niño affect precipitation?

El Niño occurs when warm water builds up along the equator in the eastern Pacific. The warm ocean surface warms the atmosphere, which allows moisture-rich air to rise and develop into rainstorms. … During El Niño years, such as 1997, the southeast receives more rain than average.

How does El Niño impact the marine ecosystem?

An El Niño reduces the upwelling of cold water off the coast of the Americas. When this happens, fish either die or migrate into areas where they’ll find more to eat. … Marine mammals, such as seals and sea lions, that feed on fish may be affected.

How does El Niño affect fishing in South America?

An El Niño reduces the upwelling of cold water off the coast of the Americas. When this happens, fish either die or migrate into areas where they’ll find more to eat. Off California, fish populations may also be reduced. Marine mammals, such as seals and sea lions, that feed on fish may be affected.

How does El Niño affect ecosystem distribution?

El Niño events are associated with physical and biological changes in our oceans that affect fish distribution. … Surface-oriented, schooling fish often disperse and move into deeper waters. Fishes that remain in an affected region experience reduced growth, reproduction, and survival.

How does El Niño affect coastal productivity?

Every 2–7 years, El Niño events trigger a strong decrease in phytoplankton productivity off Peru, which profoundly alters the environmental landscape and trophic chain of the marine ecosystem. … During El Niño, the thermocline and nutricline deepen significantly during the passage of coastal-trapped waves.

How does El Niño affect climate change?

During an El Niño event, sea surface temperatures across the Pacific can warm by 1–3°F or more for anything between a few months to two years. El Niño impacts weather systems around the globe, triggering predictable disruptions in temperature, rainfall and winds.

What are the effects of El Niño?

Severe drought and associated food insecurity, flooding, rains, and temperature rises due to El Niño are causing a wide range of health problems, including disease outbreaks, malnutrition, heat stress and respiratory diseases.

What is El Nino in relation to ocean oscillations?

El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregular periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting the climate of much of the tropics and subtropics. The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña.

What are the effects of El Niño in the Pacific Northwest?

El Niño generally diverts the jet stream, and thus winter storms, into California, leaving the Pacific Northwest high and dry (comparatively). These winters often have low precipitation and mild winters in the Pacific Northwest, sometimes resulting in a poor mountain snowpack.

How does La Niña and El Niño affect the climate in the Philippines?

The climate of the Philippines is highly influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). El Niño is associated with an increased chance of drier conditions and La Niña is associated with an increased chance of wetter conditions. … These adverse impacts may be mitigated through using seasonal climate forecasts.

How does La Niña affect the climate of the Pacific Ocean?

La Niña causes water in the eastern Pacific to be colder than usual. In the same region, El Niño can cause the water to be warmer than usual. Areas that are hit with drought during La Niña years are pummeled with rain in El Niño years.

How does La Niña affect the climate of the Pacific Ocean quizlet?

The Eastern Pacific Ocean’s temperature decreases during La Nina. It is still warmer than our ocean but compared to an average year, the water is cooler. … The Atlantic Ocean’s temperature increases during La Nina. It is still cooler than the Eastern Pacific, but compared to an average year, the water is warmer.

What is the effect of El Niño on both Pacific hurricanes typhoons and Atlantic hurricanes?

El Niño produces stronger westerly wind at upper levels of the atmosphere across the tropical Atlantic than in normal non-El Niño seasons. This increases the total vertical wind shear, basically shearing the tops from developing storms before a healthy circulation can form.

What is the effect of the presence of El Nino in the western Pacific Ocean?

During an El Niño event, sea surface temperatures over the central and eastern Pacific become warmer than normal. The normal easterly trade winds weaken and sometimes, the winds will switch and blow from the west to the east!

What is El Niño and how does it affect the weather and the environment?

Basically, El Nino is an event that occurs when the water temperatures in the central Pacific Ocean become warmer than normal. … While an increase in ocean temperatures may not sound like a big deal, it can have a profound effect on weather patterns by causing severe weather worldwide for about 12 months.

How does El Niño affect climate in South America?

Climate impacts of El Niño Phenomenon in Latin America and the Caribbean. … In Central America, El Niño leads to excessive rainfall along the Caribbean coasts, while the Pacific coasts will remain dry. Rainfall increases on the coasts of Ecuador, the northern part of Peru, and southern zones of Chile.

How does El Niño affect the water cycle?

It is well known that evaporation rates increase as temperature rises. … During El Niño periods, reduced precipitation in these regions leads to lower terrestrial moisture content, so there is less water in the soil available to evaporate.

What are the causes and effects of El N
iño phenomenon?

El Nino is essentially caused by the interaction between the surface layers of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the atmosphere over it. The water is warmer due to the trade winds reversing direction or becoming less intense. … In contrast El Nino can also bring flooding and heavy rainfall in other areas.

How does El Niño cause droughts?

High-pressure systems reduce evaporation and moisture in the atmosphere. El Niño – as the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean around the central South American coast increases, storm patterns are disrupted. This phenomenon is thought to create droughts in Indonesia and Australia.

How does El Niño affect primary productivity?

Benson et. al (2002) also found that with the arrival of El Niño in 1997, the California coast experienced decreased upwelling. They also found that while primary productivity was down all along the coast, the reduction in productivity was much greater beyond 50 km from shore.

What are the effects of El Niño and La Niña to the North American jet stream?

During El Niño (warm phase of ENSO), the jet stream’s position shows a dip in the Eastern Pacific. The stronger the El Niño, the farther east in the Eastern Pacific the dip in the jet stream occurs. Conversely, during La Niña’s, this dip in the jet stream shifts west of its normal position toward the Central Pacific.

What regions are affected by El Niño?

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